IVF or in-vitro fertilization is a fertility process in which a matured egg is collected from the ovary and connected with sperm in a liquid in the lab instead of inside the cellular body. After that, the fertilized egg or embryo undergoes through its process of four to six days. Then it is stored in the woman’s uterus in order to inaugurate a successful pregnancy. The method of invitro fertilization is considered the ART or assistive reproductive technology to deal with the problem of infertility and gestational surrogacy as well. In these methods, experts can utilize donated embryos, donor eggs and donor sperm, your eggs and donor sperm, your eggs, and your partner’s sperm, or donor eggs and your partner’s sperm.
Many suffer from the issues like uterine fibroids, inexperienced infertility, male infertility, weak ovarian function, reduced fertility in females over the age of 40, endometriosis, and damaged Fallopian tubes. In such cases, couples are not able to have a baby. IVF is the method invented just to fulfill the wishes of such peoples, and thus, it is mainly preferred by those have the inability of fertility. However, the majority of the people go for other techniques first rather than IVF because it is invasive as the well expensive method. But, when the practice of utilizing intrauterine and fertility drugs become failed, people opt for IVF treatment.
Preparation for In Vitro Fertilization
Before going through the procedure of in-vitro fertilization, a woman has to go for the test to examine the size as well as the quality of the eggs. In this test, doctors take your blood sample and test it for the status of follicle stimulating hormone.
Besides, a woman is tested to determine the health of her uterus that helps in analyzing the ideal way to implant the embryo. Doctors use high-frequency sound waves, known as ultrasound, to get a clear image of your uterus. Therefore, they get proper information before taking any action towards the treatment.
If the infertility issues own a man, he undergoes through the process of sperm testing. He has to give a semen sample for this test. Doctors conduct this test in the laboratory to evaluate the shape, size, and the number of sperm. In case if they find any kind of damage or weakness, they involve the practice of ICSI or intracytoplasmic sperm injection to overcome this problem of male infertility. The technician collects a single sperm and injects it into an egg to penetrate it. ICSI is the most expensive but vital preparation of the IVF procedure.
The procedure of the in-vitro fertilization
There are few simple steps of in-vitro fertilization.
Ovarian stimulation: A female usually produces just one egg in a month or during her every menstruation period. But, it is not enough for the in-vitro fertilization as it requires multiple eggs to induce the chances of establishing a viable embryo. So, women have to take fertility drugs that are loaded with follicle stimulating hormone. The presence of FSH helps in developing the number of eggs your body produces more than usual. Your doctor conducts regular ultrasounds and blood tests that help in monitoring the process in the ovaries.
Retrieving the eggs: Technician utilizes a minor surgical process called follicular aspiration to collect the eggs. Anesthesia helps in performing this surgical procedure. They take a very thin needle and guide it to pass through the vagina and into the ovary. Then it functions there to suck the egg and fluid out of each egg-containing follicle.
Insemination: In this procedure, collected eggs are placed with the male sperm after giving the semen sample. This collection is placed in a petri dish that is the completely environmentally controlled chamber. The sperm takes a few hours to enter the egg. But if it does not behave to produce embryos, your doctors use ICSI method in which they inject the sperm into the eggs directly.
Fertilisation: The doctors first assure that the egg is fertilizing properly. When the egg fertilizes, they put it in a particular incubator to make it divide and develop appropriately. They keep an eye to the embryo culture or the progress of the egg that takes 5-6 days. They often analyze genetic conditions during the same time.
Embryo transfer: When the embryos develop entirely in the lab, doctors implant them into your uterus. Before transferring the embryo, women ask to drink plenty of water to make their bladder full. The process of implantation involves very simple steps. The developed embryos are placed in a small thin tube that is called a catheter. Doctors insert it into your vagina, through your cervix, and into your uterus. They use ultrasound guidance to fix the position of the embryo and then release it on the exact place in the uterus.
The blood test: The final blood test after two weeks of embryo transfer will determine whether you are pregnant or not. This blood test calculates the hormone HCG’S or human chorionic gonadotropin level. The chances are higher of positive pregnancy test if there is a good level of HCG in your bloodstream.
In Vitro Fertilization Complications
It is a fact that there are chances of complications with any medical procedure. Women may experience the temporary difficulties associated with the procedure of IVF treatment. They are given certain medications that make them feel irritability, sleeplessness, abdominal pain, hot flashes, nausea, and vomiting as well. Also, chances are higher of multiple pregnancies in the in-vitro fertilization. Thus, they are more likely to have the premature birth and significant risk of low birth weight. Alternatively, they can have the ectopic pregnancy or the implantation of the egg outside the uterus. In added to, females can be trapped by OHSS (ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome) in case if your ovary over-respond to gonadotrophins. Female often face the problem of infection, bleeding, or pregnancy loss (miscarriage).
The doctors may suggest you go through the IVF treatment procedure again if you experience the OHSS issue or pregnancy loss. It may be the critical situation for you to decide what to do afterward. But it is the only method to achieve pregnancy when other treatments do not work.