The Hematoma is when the blood vessels ruptures and the blood get collected beneath the skin. Usually, trauma including surgery or injury is responsible for it. Besides, some diseases can also cause it. The blood inside the vessels flows consistently, so the blood clotting doesn’t take place. Initially, it is in the liquid form. It sweeps among the tissues and solidifies before the blood vessels soak the blood again. A massive Hematoma covering more tissues will form in case of severe bleeding. It is known as ecchymosis. It is a widespread problem faced by most of the people in their lifetime. You can see it as purplish bruises present under the skin or nails. These skin bruises are also known as contusions. Sometimes, it occurs deep down the body which is not visible to the bare eyes.
Causes of Hematoma
As mentioned before, the most usual reason for it is trauma or injury to the blood vessels. The disruptions of blood vessel walls cause it. They are very delicate. Hence, they burst out even by a minimal damage. The skin beneath the nails is very fragile, and a minor injury can also create it.
The severe injuries caused due to involving a vehicle accident, falling from a height, and others can cause massive hematomas. Such traumas can also form inside the body cavities. Some blood-thinning drugs can enhance the formation of a hematoma. It includes medications like aspirin, warfarin, Plavix, Persantine, etc. They weaken the clotting power of the blood. Hence, even a minute damage to the blood vessel can result in it. Some other drugs that may reduce the clotting power are as follows:
- NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs)
- Vitamin E
- Ginkgo biloba.
- Garlic supplements
Apart from the intake of above drugs, some of the other reasons for the frequent occurrence of hematoma are as follows:
- A person who intakes a lot of alcohol may have high bleeding tendencies.
- Severe liver diseases can also be responsible.
- People with bleeding disorders, blood cancers or low platelet count may have high bleeding tendencies causing the hematoma.
Types of Hematoma
We classify Hematomas as their location of occurrence in the body. Following are the kinds of hematoma.
Subdural: It takes place in the inner lining of the brain and brain tissue.
Intracranial Epidural: It occurs in the outer lining of the brain and the skull.
Subungual Hematoma: It occurs in the tissues beneath the nails.
Spinal Epidural: As the name suggests, it occurs between the outer lining of the spinal cord and the spinal vertebrae.
Intra-abdominal, Peritoneal, or Retroperitoneal: They all occur inside the abdominal cavity.
Hepatic: It occurs inside the liver.
Splenic: It occurs inside the spleen.
Ear or Aural: It happens inside the skin and ear cartilage.
Symptoms of Brain Hematoma
It includes Subdural, Epidural, and Intracranial epidural hematomas. Usually, they are caused by head injuries, and indeed it can be life-threatening. Moreover, one needs immediate medical care in case it is severe. Some of its symptoms are as follows:
- The patient may face a chronic headache, confusion, unconsciousness, and vomiting.
- He may have unequal pupils.
- There may be drowsiness and deafness in the patient.
- He may be unable to move legs or arms.
- There may be problems in gulping food.
- He may have difficulty in speaking.
Symptoms of Other Hematoma Types
- In Subungual, the person may have pain, loss disfiguring, and weakening of nails.
- In Epidural hematoma, the patient may have a weakness, back pain, and bowel loss.
Resolution of Hematoma
Usually, they get healed or resolved over the time. The blood clot formed in the starting slowly gets spongier and softer. Afterwards, the body breaks down the initial blood clot. Eventually, the fluid washes it away and flattens the hematoma.
The color of an initial blood clot is purple. Afterward, it turns into bluish which later turns into yellowish. Finally, it becomes brown after the full resolution. Due to gravity, this discoloration may also move downwards to the nearest tissues.
Some Primary Therapies You Can Take
In most of the superficial hematomas, you can get relief by some simple treatments. They are rubbing ice, thermal compression, and elevating the swollen area. These four methods are known as RICE.
- Rest: you must give the injured part enough rest
- Ice: Applying cold pack or ice for few minutes will be helpful. For best results, you should use the ice pack off for at least four times for twenty-five minutes each.
- Compression: You can use elastic bandages for compression.
- Elevation: The elevation above the heart level will help in reducing the blood flow to the injured area. Thus, it will assist the hematoma in getting severe.
Medical Therapy to Treat Hematoma
- There is no need of surgical procedure or treatment for small However, those located inside may require a surgical procedure.
- There is no particular medication for it. In fact, you need a combination of various drugs to eliminate the symptoms. For pain, one has to use Tylenol.
- The only way to treat some hematomas is via surgical drainage. Usually, a chronic subdural hematoma needs urgent drainage. However, one can leave it if it isn’t severe. One can monitor it via CT scan and check healing progress.
- Besides, in a subungual hematoma, one can let the blood drain from nails. It may lead to severe discomfort. The fingernails may fall out. If the bleeding is due to an ongoing blood thinner medication, doctors have to discontinue it.
Home Remedies to Treat Hematoma
You can use onion if the injury doesn’t have any cut involved. It contains an element known as allicin. It increases the lymphatic flow which reduces the excessive blow beneath your skin. You can use it by directly placing the layers of onion on the skin area for fifteen minutes.
Warm chocolate can be helpful in treating this disorder. It helps to compress the damaged blood vessels. Thus, it can influence the blood circulation and eliminate the bruises. On the injured area, place the warm chocolate using a bandage and leave it for few minutes.
It can prove significantly helpful in toning down inflammation and swelling. You can apply it on the injured area by creating a mixture of lotion and toothpaste right before going to bed. Afterward, cover it with a bandage and leave it for an entire night. Eventually, you will see significant changes after washing it off in the next morning.
Undoubtedly, the healing properties of turmeric make it an ideal medication for many disorders. In fact, it contains essential oils which enhances the blood flow. At first, you have to create a shake with lukewarm milk and turmeric powder. Finally, drink this shake daily.
The cabbage leaves are an excellent source of vitamins and phytonutrients. Thus, they have anti-inflammatory features. Besides, they are rich in vitamins K and C. They have anti-brushing properties due to these vitamins. All together it makes it an ideal remedy. At first, you have to make the cabbage leaves softer by keeping them in hot water. Afterward, create a paste and place it on the injured area. Leave it for thirty minutes. Finally, wash it off.
The Epsom salt water can give you relaxation from swelling and pain. You can wash the affected skin area in it by mixing it with warm water. Initially, you may have some irritation. However, it won’t last long.
It is useful for treating many skin problems. The lavender oil can reduce swelling and paint. Besides, it also comes with antibiotic and antiseptic properties. You can apply it to the injured area using a cotton buds or cloths.
Cayenne Pepper and Vaseline
The cayenne pepper has healing properties that can help you treat bruises. At first, you have to mix it with Vaseline in the ratio of 1:5. Now, apply it to the affected skin area. Leave it for twenty minutes. Finally, wash it off. You will feel some relaxation.
Rich in Vitamin C, Blueberries can help in boosting blood circulation. In fact, it will not just heal you instantly but rejuvenate your skin as well. All you got to do is to add plenty of them to your morning diet. In a couple of days, you will see improvements.
It is another excellent remedy, which can help you in removing bruises. You can apply black coffee to the injured area. For this, use cotton swabs. After applying, leave it for ten minutes. Finally, wash the skin area. For best results, you can try it for a couple of times in a day.