Bangalore – The Garden City & the Rock Capital of India

Bengaluru, formerly known as Bangalore is the third largest city in India. It is the capital of Karnataka, one of the Indian states in Southern India. Bengaluru or Bangalore is situated on the Deccan Plateau in South India at the height of 3,000 feet above the sea level, making it the highest among all the major metropolitan cities of the country. It is comprised of a vast population of 8.42 million and a cosmopolitan density of 8.52 million thus becoming the fifth largest agglomeration in the nation.

History and Etymology

‘Bengaluru’ is the Kannada word which is the name of a village near Kodegehali. According to the ancient Kannada language, Halegannada, people call it as ‘Bengaval-Uru’ which means the ‘City of Guard.’ The city of Bangalore or Bengaluru, in the 16th century, was first established in a place known as ‘Shivanasamudran.’

Bangalore was ruled by various rulers and dynasties like the South Indian dynasties, the Hoysalas, the Cholas, and the Western Gangas till 1537 CE. Then emerged a great king by the name Kempe Gowda, pinned under the Vijayanagar Empire. Later the Marathas zapped the city, and it remained for 50 years under their rule. Then the Mughals gained control over the town and depleted it to the Wadiyar Dynasty, the ruler of the Mysore Kingdom. In the year 1799, the city of Bangalore was again captured by the British East India Company after they achieved victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War. The British Government handed over the administrative power of Bangalore afterward to the Maharaja of Mysore, and the Maharaja developed and made it the capital city of Mysore. It remained as an individual entity throughout the British Raj. Later with the independence in 1947, Bangalore was established as the capital city of Mysore State until the new state of Karnataka that emerged in 1956.

Places of Importance

Bengaluru is often known as the ‘IT Capital’ or ‘Silicon Valley of India’ as it is India’s principal information technology operator. Not only it is the largest and the most important IT Hub, but it also has India’s best research centers, universities, medical institutes and educational structures. Some notable names are

  • ISRO, India Institute of Science (IISc)
  • Indian Institute of Management (IIM-B)
  • National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT)
  • National Institute of Design (NID R&D Campus)
  • National Institute of Mental Health
  • Neuroscience (NIMHANS)
  • National Law School of India University (NLSIU).

Other than these world famous institutes, there are several renowned schools and colleges. Bharat Electronic, Hindustan Aeronautics, and National Aerospace Laboratories are some top-notch organizations that have got their place in Bengaluru. This city also has the shack for the Kannada Film Industry. There are also many state government administered schools, institutes, offices.

Culture and Lifestyle

Bangalore is not only the IT Capital of India or the house of several central research institutes, but it is also known as the ‘Garden City of India,’ and the ‘Pub Capital of India’ as Bangalore has many gardens and the city is full of greenery and good roads. There are public parks like Lal Bagh, Cubbon Park in the city. Bangalore is also famous for the music as it organizes most of the international live rock concerts and underground music shows. There are many vegan food joints available in Bangalore as well. PETA has also crowned Bangalore as India’s most Vegan-prone city. There are festivals of many kinds like Eid ul-Fitr, Muharram, Ganesh Chaturthi, Holi, Ugadi, and Ram Navami. Many famous North Indian restaurants are found in Bangalore. Udipi restaurants are mainly renowned for vegetarian foods.

Top Spots to Visit in Bangalore/Bengaluru

Shivanasamudra Falls

Shivanasamudra Falls

It is mainly famous for trekking, but one can also go there for witnessing the breathtaking beauty of the falls and nature around.  There is no entry fee, and you can visit it at any time, but day-time is preferred as the best time to visit this place. It is around 3 hrs driveway from Bangalore that is almost 132 km from the city. It is mainly famous as the first hydraulic power station in Asia. To reach the falls you need to trek a distance of 2.5 km and the entire route is nothing but magnificently beautiful. The perfect time to visit this place is from June to September.  Nearby areas of Shivanasamudra Falls that you need to visit are Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary, Tanaka and several other small distributaries of the main waterfall.

The waterfall is one of the breathtaking features of this island town. The view of the river water falling hundreds of feet down turning into a blanket of the seething shower is a scene to cherish forever. The Shivanasamudram Falls claim the second place of the most significant waterfalls in India. Boat rides are available to enjoy the scenic beauty of the waterfalls. This island town also offers temples of ancient times to satisfy the religious side of the travelers. The temples include Shivanasamudram, Someshwara Linga, Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, etc. This place is a traveler’s utopia and the empty canvas of an artist.

National Gallery of Modern Art

National Gallery of Modern Art

This museum resides in a hundred-year-old manor where the Raja of Mysuru spent his vacations previously. National Gallery of Modern Art is the best place for all the lovers of arts. This museum harbors roughly 500 items distributed all around the corridors, large halls, and small rooms. A visitor can take a trip to the entire museum in about 2 hours. The Old Wing showcases the pre-independence artworks, whereas the polished New Wing features the synchronic works of the post-independence India. This museum has the masterpiece artworks of several painters like Raja Ravi Verma, Jamini Roy, Rabindranath Tagore, etc. All the paintings have the name of its artist, and of the era, it belongs to embedded, and it is correct as well. The entry fee of the gallery for Indians is 10 INR, for children it  1 INR and 150 INR for foreigners. It remains open for seven days from 10 to 5 pm.  This museum also holds art exhibition, excellent art shows in the auditorium. You can also see the prints of any of the famous paintings inside the gallery from the art shops outside. The museum is not only about admiring artworks. The museum also offers dance programs, workshops, film screening, tours around the gallery, speeches, etc. One can also enjoy a book or a magazine with a hot cup of coffee in the enormous library of a million choices.

Nandi Hills

nandi hills

Nandi Hill acquired its name from the Nandi Temple situated on top of the hill at an elevation of 1478 meters above the sea level. It is a hill-fortress of the ancient times in the Chikkaballapur district. Nandi Hills is located just 60 km away from Bangalore city and is one of the most serene and tranquil hill stations near Bangalore. The hills settle in the vicinity of a town named Nandi. The weather over here is so good that you can visit at any time of the year. Nandi Hills is the place of origin of two rivers, Palar and Arkavathi.

The hills have become an exciting choice for tourists during the summer season. The Horticulture Department of Karnataka takes care of the gardens for the benefit of the tourists. There are places like Amruth Sarovar, Tippu’s Summer Place and Fort, a Yoga Nandeshwar Temple, and a children’s playground make some most excellent attraction joints for the tourists. You can also enjoy trekking, bicycling and bike riding in Nandi Hills. The scenic beauty of the hills attracts hundreds of tourists every year. As a result, noise, physical inconvenience, and defecation are some of the most common problems here. Nevertheless, Nandi Hill is a must for every single person who spends his days trying to satisfy the wanderlust of his soul.

Tipu Sultan Fort

Tipu Sultan Fort

This fort is a grand treat for all the history lovers and the explorers of ancient times. This fort of Tipu Sultan is also known as in the most significant market area of Bangalore. It is 45 mins away from the central city. This fort was first built by Kempegowda using mud and brick in the year 1537. Further, it was remodeled by the great Haider Ali with granite stone, and finally, he could not finish the extension work. It was the grand Tipu Sultan, who ended the fort in the year 1791 and began using it as his sole summer ebb. The fort displays the perfect format of Muslim artistry and construction with high pillars, patterned balconies, and carved arches. This fort also depicts the religious equality and brotherhood of the ruler Tipu Sultan as the fort has a temple of Ganesha, a Hindu God. The establishment of the temple dates back to the 18th Century yet the temple stands high to this day. The fort dedicates a gallery to exhibit in numerous photographs, paintings, carvings, et cetera, of the ancient India. The Tipu Sultan Palace is where the travelers, archaeologists, artists, and historians come together to admire the culture of South India. The Archaeological Survey of India carries out the responsibility of perpetuating the state of the palace.

The fort is open to all the visitors from 10 am to 6 pm. Visitors can purchase their visiting tickets from the counter at the main gate. The tickets cost 5 rupees each. Anyone under the age of 15 can avail a free entry.

Lal Bagh Botanical Gardens

Lal Bagh Botanical Gardens

This is the garden that acquired the name of being one of the beautiful gardens in India. Haider Ali made this garden, and the area of the garden is about 240 acres. This garden has almost 2000 plant species. The entry fee is 15 INR for Indian citizen. You can visit the garden any time of the year. Their place also has a Glass House, which is a replica of London Crystal Place. A Biannual Flower show also takes place in this garden. The garden also houses a few kinds of birds. Some frequently spotted birds in this yard are Purple Moor Hen, Pond Heron, Myna, Crows, Parakeets, Common Egret, Brahminy Kite, etc.

The Mughal Gardens that once resided at Sira, which is 120 km away from Bangalore are the inspiration for the depiction of the Lalbagh Gardens. Even though Haider Ali started the project, it was Tipu Sultan who finished it. Haider Ali created this garden based on the Mughal Gardens because of its popularity at that time. Tipu Sultan imported foreign plants and trees to enrich the gardens with Horticultural riches. The Lalbagh Gardens hold the prestigious record of being the first lawn-clock of India and the most significant compilation of common plants.

Bangalore Palace

Bangalore Palace

During the year, 1884, the construction of the Bangalore Palace was done in the year 1884 by Chamaraja Wodeyar by taking the inspiration from the Windsor Castle of England. Bangalore Palace is positioned precisely in the central part of the city. The palace covers a vast area of 430 acres. This place is made up in Tudor Style with gothic windows and other wooden carvings. The ground floor has a courtyard with seats of granite and ceramic fluorescent blue tiles. It also consists of a ballroom for celebrating exclusive get-togethers. The Durbar Hall is on the first floor. Visitors have to climb on an ornamented staircase to reach the hall. Kings used to build the buildings to sermonize council. The Durbar Hall contains an enormous head of an elephant placed in it. The walls around the stairs are beautiful because of the paintings hung. Travelers also take an interest in the dining table that the Diwan of Mysore owned. The table was perfect due to the design with mother-of-pearl inlay and Chinese lacquer. Entry fee of Bangalore Palace 230 INR and 460 INR respectively, and 685 INR extra for still camera photography. This place is also famous for book festivals and concerts.

Cubbon Park

cubbon park bangalore

This area is famous for the lush green garden which is perfect for a recreational walk, yoga, meditation, etc. It is built up in a land of 300 acres that provides an excellent view of nature. The park has around 600 native and foreign trees of 96 different species and 68 different genres. The native trees include cassia fistula, polyanthas, Artocarpus, focus, et cetera; and alien species like bamboo, millettia, tabebuia, Grevillea robusta, peltophorum, Castanospermum Australia, Schinus molle, Swietenia Mahagoni, et cetera. The silver oak tree is the first ever oak tree to come to Bangalore from Australia. The Silver Oak tree and the Gulmohar tree adorn the roads of the park. The tourists who visit this park in Bangalore have nicknamed it “Garden City” as it reminds them of a city full of natural wonders. There is no entry fee for this park, and you can visit at any time of the day and year. It is just 1.5 hrs distance from the Bangalore Main City. You can also take Toy rides inside the park.

The Government Museum

The museum houses rare collections of items that signify different eras and time periods. It has antique jewelry of various cultures, Neolithic findings of many civilizations, etc. The Government Museum is a must stopover for all those who have a fetish for archeology, history, different cultures, and traditions. The museum contains 18 galleries within two floors to exhibit the treasures of ancient India. The photos showcase various genres of creativity, including music, art, numismatics, natural history, sculpture, and geology. The historical artifacts include old jewelry, inscriptions, coins, et cetera. This museum owns a few unique objects too. Other than that, there are 84 sculptures and 70 paintings that emphasize the beauty of the hall. Other artifacts include Neolithic pottery from Chandravalli, Vijaynagar, Halebid, and Mohenjo-Daro. Some of the objects are from thousands of year existence. The museum also exhibits unique paintings from the kingdoms of Mysore, the Deccan, and Tanjore. It also has the Vekatappa Art Gallery in it and is about 2.5 hours drive from the city.

St Mary’s Basilica in Bengaluru

St Mary’s Basilica in Bengaluru

The best time to visit this church is in the September month as the famous St Mary’s Feast takes place. This feast is the most celebrated of all the festivals in the basilica. Over 100,000 people participate in the celebration that continues for ten days. Donations to the needy are the primary intention of the ceremony. Eucharistic celebrations take place on the very day of the festival. The devotees trail a chariot with a picture of Mother Mary along the streets of the city. This church is the oldest church in Bangalore, which is one of the six basilica churches of India. Many stories are there that can be spoken about with this church. The basilica features arches of Gothic style, tinted glass windows, and decorative motifs. Several columns of rich Corinthian capitals sustain the arches in the Church. The towering steeple of the basilica is visible from afar. The tinted glass windows were replaced at the time of the World War II.

Chola Temples

Chola Temples

Once upon a time, South India was regulated by the Chola Dynasty. But still, Bengaluru has its imprint in many parts of the city. The Chola King Rajaraja instated a pot-finial of golden plates on top of a new temple in Thanjavur. The temple is one of the most magnificent temples in India. Southern India went through a creative phase during the 9th to 13th centuries. This period gave birth to the exceptional artistic and literary accomplishments. More or less 300 stone temples came into existence during the great reign of the Chola dynasty. Chola temples are the perfect example of the traditional and cultural belongings of the Chola’s. You cannot enter all the temples unless you take permission from the State Government, beforehand.

Vidhana Soudha

Vidhana Soudha

This architectural landmark portrays the Indo-Saracenic and Dravidian construction and best architecture. Records say that this is the most significant and most prominent legislative and administrative building of the country. Visiting Bangalore and missing out Vidhana Soudha will be a substantial loss for you. The credit for the inception and interpretation of the Vidhan Soudha goes to Kengal Hanumanthaia. The very first Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru did the honor of laying the foundation stone in 1951. However, Kengal Hanumanthaia was the active figure in the making of the Soudha. He visited various foreign countries to collect ideas about the design of the building. He splurged 15 million Indian rupees in the construction which made him the subject of criticism. The South Indian government spends 20 million rupees every year for its maintenance. The building lights up on public holidays and Sundays.

Kaivara

Kaivara

Kaivara is one of the major hubs for pilgrims in Karnataka. It is a small town at Chintamani Taluk in the district of Chikkaballapura. The city is approximately 70km away from Bangalore. The place has its significance in the South Indian history. It is in a scenic valley with a temperature that varies from 18 to 23-degree centigrade. Kaivara has a pleasant climate and heavy rainfalls. The place resembles hill stations in some aspects. This small town has its linkage with our epic saga Mahabharata. According to many scriptures, the Pandavas took shelter in this ancient village at the time of their exile. Apart from this great saint and bilingual author Saint Narayanappa also lived here. The main point of attraction is the Amaranaryana Swamy Temple. The temple is said to have its linkage with Lord Venkateshwara of Tripura. There is another tourist point of interests in the location mentioned below:-

  • Laxmana Theertha
  • Kailasagiri cave temples
  • Yoginarayana Mutt
  • Bheemalingeshwara Temple.

The most popular pilgrimage of this town is the ashram of Narayanappa. It has turned into a tourist spot over the years.

Bannerghatta National Park

Bannerghatta National Park

A national park is a perfect place for wildlife and eco-lovers. This national park is situated somewhat around 2 hrs away from the Bangalore City. This national park also offers a zoo safari to its visitors. The location of the zoo is in the center of the Champakadama Hills. A butterfly farm is also a new addition to it. The park has old temples and is suitable for hiking and trekking. Narcissus latifolia, Terminalia tomentosa, Neem, Schleichera oleosa, Grewia tilaefolia, T. Arjuna, Santalum album, Sandalwood, are some of the Floras found in the park. Some faunas worth mentioning are elephants, Indian gazelle, wild boars, common langur, barking deer, et cetera. Besides, the park owns different types of birds. According to reports, the fauna poses the significant threat to the human life. There are six rural villages in the park for cattle and sheep farming. The perfect time for visiting this national park is in the autumn and winter season.

Bull Temple

bull temple bangalore

The Bull Temple is in Basavanagudi, South Bangalore. The temple resides in a park known as Bugle Rock. The Bull is the spiritual demi-god, Nandi, of the Hindu treatise. Nandi was an engaged worshipper of Lord Shiva.  Another cult image is present in the temple which is of Lord Ganesha. A groundnut is proposed to the deity in a groundnut fair at the temple. The temple arranges the market on the last Monday and Tuesday of Karthika Maasa of the Hindu calendar. The locals call the show, “Kadalekaayi Parishe” in their native language. The Namdi Temple is a typical tourist spot in South India.

Art of Living International Centre

Art of Living International Centre

The Sanskrit word ‘Ashrama’ loosely translates to ‘home.’ As the name suggests, it is a place for the nourishment of the soul and the reconstruction of the mind. The Bangalore Ashram of The Art of Living International Centre is in rural Karnataka. The place is 21km South of Bangalore and received its establishment in 1986. With the perfect combination of ancient and modern artistic works, the ashram stands as a testament to the moralities of The Art of Living. Visitors can avail meditative walks, ashram explorations and various courses at the ashram every week. Here, people can learn the values of a peaceful life.

Chikka Tirupathi Temple

Chikka Tirupathi Temple

The Chikka Tirupathi Temple is erected in the name of Lord Venkateshwara. It is the miniature version of the vast Tirumala Tirupathi temple. Much like every other South Indian temple, the Chikka Tirupathi temple also owns a great Gopura. The rituals in this temple are similar to that of the ceremony in Tirumala Tirupathi. The location of the Chikka Tirupathi is in the vicinity of Malur of the district of Kolar. The place is incredibly peaceful and serene. The temple is open to visitors from 6.30am to 7.30pm at a stretch. The temple organizes the processions in June and October. Thus, it is the most suitable time to pay a visit to the Chikka Tirupathi temple.

Bugle Rock

Bugle Rock

Bugle Rock is an enormous rock found in the Basavagudi region of Bangalore. The Bugle Rock has been the source of curiosity for many scientists. The Bugle Rock stands right beside the Bull Temple. The majority of the rocks on the Bugle Rock have voids. Once, these voids helped in lighting lamps. The entire area takes up about 16 acres of land. The Bugle Rock is vicinal and shares a similarity with the rock found in the Lalbagh tower. 2 hours are enough to take a tour around the entire park. It is a family-friendly place that you can visit with kids. The park also includes an amphitheater and picnic spots. The park is open the entire day from 9 am to 7 pm.

Holy Trinity Church

Holy Trinity Church

Located at the Trinity circle on the east of the MG Road, the Holy Trinity Church is a prominent marker of Bangalore. The British built the church in 1851 for the British Regiment sited in Bangalore. The British decorated the church with the touch of the English Renaissance. The building is capable of housing 700 people. It is the largest church for “military” in the southern parts of India. It has an assembly of more than 450 families. The construction began on the 16th of February in 1848. Several of the statues seen in the church got their establishment in England. The church has stained glass windows and a pond for baptism. The British imported these from England. The Holy Trinity Church is said to be the oldest church in India.

Begur Fort

Begur Fort

Begur is a tiny but significant town in Bangalore. Begur has been a place of great importance during the reigns of the Western Ganga and the Chola Kings. The Panchalingeshwara Temple standing in the heart of the town Begur is a historically rich spot. The temple has engravings that aged for roughly 1100 years. This temple contains the earliest mentions of the place “Bengaluru.” The fort is open to visitors every day of a week. It opens at 6 AM in the morning and closes at 6 pm. Entry to the temple is free of cost. It is a fantastic place to take a trip to for the lovers of history and artistic heritage.

Mg Road, Bangalore

Mg Road, Bangalore

The most happening place of Bangalore city, filled with shopping zones, parties, clubs, and food cuisines. It is the place where the famous ISKCON temple is located. Mg road is a lovely destination and loved by a vast number of tourists. With people, the location is famous for shopping and gorging on food. Traditional silk handicrafts, painting, traditional attire all are available here. Plethora filled with restaurants, pubs and specialty restaurants. Mg road is of great importance, as the south parade during independence time was held here under the supervision of Mahatma Gandhi. Mg road indulges you in shopping experiences, partying, restaurant and delectable delicacies.

The Great Film City

It is very famous for a fantastic day trip to a theme park whose location is in Bidadi. Over 58acres this theme park is located, where you spend enjoyable moments with family and friends. You get handicrafts, restaurant, boating centers, and different fun-filled rides. Several film shootings have taken place here, as every sight of it is picturesque. It includes city, fashion hubs, miniature city, the famous cartoon city, and water rides. The presence of the very innovative studio will make you feel wonderful with the presence of movies and a lot of glamour.

Chunchi Falls

Chunchi Falls

Only 50kms away from the Bangalore city, this place is genuinely mesmerizing, offering serenity and pure calmness. The waterfall is just breathtaking, showcasing the true essence of nature. Arkavathi River flows here, for nature lovers it is a beautiful option. This place is free and has no entry charge. This place ensures peace and relaxation. The waterfall has surrounding shopping stalls, restaurants, and proper sitting arrangements. Chunchi falls records of accidents, so being careful is a must here.

Bangalore Aquarium

Bangalore Aquarium

Bangalore aquarium is situated in the Cuban park, ranked as second in India. Since 1983 it has been attracting tourists from every part of the world. The aquarium has a vast collection of organic as well as exotic fishes like the catla, prawns, the goldfish, red shark, Siamese. If you are fond of exploring and adventuring then, this is the best place.  The aquarium is shaped like a diamond and has three floors. Each floor consists of a large number of tanks, counting up to 69 tanks. Visit Bangalore aquarium and explore the wide variety of aquatic life.

ISKCON Temple

ISKCON Temple

ISKCON temple is a perfect combination of culture and religion. ISKCON temple is all about Lord Krishna, under the guidance of Madhu Pandit Dasa. It is purely a cultural complex that has the accommodation of deities like Radha Krishna Chandra, Krishna Balarama, and Nitai Gauranga. The overwhelming devotees of Lord Krishna visit the ISKON temple once in their lifetime to get blessings and inner peace. Cultural programs, songs, meals for poor, meditation, praying services are all part of ISKCON temple. Regular prayer dictation, lectures, services, reading of the Gita.

Ulsoor Lake

Ulsoor Lake

Ulsoor Lake is biggest in Bangalore and is very admirable. Built by Kempe Gowda, during the second century, Ulsoor Lake was named previously as hall sure and alasur. You cannot swim in this lake since it is deep, but you can go for boating in this beautiful lake. Located closely to the mg road, it is very well connected with the locality. The lake has terrific picturesque islands situated, and some islands do have eating arrangements. Many temples are located near the Ulsoor Lake, where devotees visit it regularly. The dawn and dusk here is a beautiful sight to watch. Couples get indulged by the beauty, while photographers aspire to capture every view.

Commercial Street

A commercial street is a known place for all, primarily known by shopaholics. Shopaholics should never miss this site, filled with cheap stalls, certain lifestyle and a very lively ambiance. You get sophisticated brands like Jimmy Choo and also get the local stalls. Enough stalls are present there, where you get the best piece of clothing, shoes, and jewelry. The commercial complexes offer people with all types of accessories. Bangalore trip will never end without visiting Commercial Street. Shop the silk dupattas, lovely prints, handicrafts, Maheshwari, available in best of quality and price.

Lord Shiva Temple

Lord Shiva temple Bangalore

Lord Shiva temple situated in Bangalore city is regarded as one of the most beautiful temples across India. The temple is devoted to deities like Shiva and Ganapati. Devotees from all over visit Lord Shiva temple, to devote themselves and go on for a religious journey. Regular festival and rituals people can be seen here. In all over the south, Lord Shiva is worthy of immense respect; hence a Lord Shiva temple gets a lot of importance. The statue of Lord Shiva carries white marble, which is approximately 65ft.Lord Shiva sits on an artificial pool of water, as that is what they considered the reality.

Hal Aerospace Museum

The Hal aerospace museum is the first ever aerospace museum established in 2001. The glorious journey of Indian aviation is present here. The growth, the timelines of the aviation of India is depicted here very comprehensively. Hindustan aeronautics limited and the best aeronautical companies in all over Asia has developed Hal aerospace museum. Different honors, grandeur and the intricacies of the aviation field lies here. It feels great to be present in such a respectable place. It is so exquisite that it attracts every age group.

Wonder La

Wonderla Bangalore

It is an amusement park, catering all types of activities and exciting all ages. It is just 26km away from the main Bangalore city railway station. The wonder la is the finest and biggest entertainment park. The activities include a musical fountain, the laser shows, sound shows, light activities, wave pool, water rides. In wonder la the hurricane, the famous maverick, techno jumps, the wonder splash all are famed. The present special attraction added to wonder la is the rain dance activity. With regular fast rack tickets, spend some delightful time in wonder.

Nothing can be as good as getting the chance to spend your life in Bangalore. It is because it provides a package of MNCs, education centers, recreational hubs, and activities.

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